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Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Library

Useful Links

Library

If you would like to learn more about DG technologies, we recommend the following sources:

Chapter 1.

  1. Allison, Juliann and Jim Lents. “Encouraging Distributed Generation of Power That Improves Air Quality: Can We Have Our Cake and Eat It Too?” Energy Policy 30 (2002), pp. 737-752. 
  2. Alderfer, R. Brent and Thomas J. Starrs.  “Making Connections: Case Studies of Interconnection Barriers and Their Impact on Distributed Power Projects.” National Renewable Energy Laboratory Report NREL/SR-200-28053 (Golden, CO: NREL, 2001). 
  3. Allen, Anthony. “The Legal Impediments to Distributed Generation.” Energy Law Journal 23 (2002), pp. 505-523.
  4. Armistead, Thomas F. et al. (2002). “Distributed Generation: Rolling Blackouts Rekindle Faith in Placing Generation Near Demand.” Energy News Record, July 1, Retrieved March 2005 from http://enr.construction.com/features/powerIndus/archives/020701.asp
  5. Arthur D. Little Foundation. “Distributed Generation: Policy Framework for Regulators.” An Arthur D. Little White Paper (Boston, MA: ADL Publishing, 1999), available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/de/pdfs/dg_regulators_policy.pdf
  6. Borbely, Ann-Marie and Jan F. Kreider. (2001). Distributed Generation: The Power Paradigm for the New Millennium. New York: CRC Press. 
  7. Brent, Richard. (2003). “A Blueprint for DG: Presenting a Fair and Simple Distributed Generation Plan for Utilities and Policymakers.” Public Utilities Fortnightly 141 (Jan 1): 28-33. 
  8. Business Council for Sustainable Energy and the United States Agency for International Development. (2004). Increasing Energy Access in Developing Countries: The Role of Distributed Generation.  Washington, DC: Bureau for Economic, Growth, Agriculture, and Trade of USAID. 
  9. Capehart, Barney L., Paul Mehta & Wayne Turner. “Distributed Generation and Your Energy Future.” Cogeneration and Distributed Generation Journal 18(4) (2003), pp. 17-33.
  10. Casten, Thomas R. (1998). Turning Off the Heat: Why America Must Double Energy Efficiency to Save Money and Reduce Global Warming. New York: Prometheus Books. 
  11. Chambers, Ann, Barry Schnoor, and Stephanie Hamilton. (2001). Distributed Generation: A Nontechnical Guide. London: PenWell Publishers. 
  12. Goett, Andrew and Richard Farmer. Prospects for Distributed Electricity Generation: A CBO Paper (Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, 2003). 
  13. Gulli, Francesco. (2004). “Small Distributed Generation Versus Centralized Supply: A Social Cost-Benefit Analysis in the Residential and Service Sectors.” Energy Policy, August: 8-18. 
  14. Hirsh, R. F. and B. K. Sovacool. “Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation.” Journal of Technology Studies (Forthcoming, 2006). 
  15. International Energy Agency. Distributed Generation in Liberalized Electricity Markets. (Paris: International Energy Agency, 2002).   
  16. Little, Arthur D. (1999). “Distributed Generation: Understanding the Economics.” An Arthur D. Little White Paper. Boston, MA: ADL Publishing.  
  17. Little, Arthur D. (1999). “Distributed Generation: System Interfaces.” An Arthur D. Little White Paper. Boston, MA: ADL Publishing.
  18. Little, Arthur D. (2000). “Reliability and Distributed Generation.” An Arthur D. Little White Paper. Boston, MA: ADL Publishing. 
  19. Lopez, Jamie DeLaRee. (2002). "Module B1: Energy, Power, and Environment." PowerLearn: Electric Power Engineering Education. Blacksburg, VA.
  20. Lovins, Amory, E. Kyle Datta, Thomas Feiler, Karl R. Rábago, Joel N. Swisher P.E., André Lehmann, and Ken Wicker. Small is Profitable: The Hidden Benefits of Making Electrical Resources the Right Size(Snowmass, CO: Rocky Mountain Institute, 2002). 
  21. Masters, Gilbert M. (2004). Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems.  London: Wiley and Sons. 
  22. Munson, Richard. “Yes in my Backyard: Distributed Electric Power.” Issues in Science & Technology (Winter, 2006), pp. 49-54.
  23. Ottinger, Richard L. and Rebecca Williams. (2002). “2002 Energy Law Symposium: Renewable Energy Sources for Development.” Environmental Law 32, 331-362. 
  24. Pepermans, G. et al. “Distributed Generation: Definition, Benefits, and Issues.” Energy Policy 31 (August, 2003), pp. 21-29. 
  25. Public Utilities Fortnightly. (2003). “A Blueprint for DG: Presenting a Fair and Simple Distributed Generation Plan for Utilities and Policymakers.” January 1, p. 28-41.
  26. Resource Dynamics Corporation. (2001). “Assessment of Distributed Generation Technology Applications.” Report to the Maine Public Utilities Commission (February). Vienna, VA: Resource Dynamics Corporation.
  27. Rezendes, Victor S. (1998). “Electricity Deregulation and Implications for R&D and Renewables.” Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment of the House Committee on Science, March 31.  Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
  28. Sawin, Janet. (2004). Mainstreaming Renewable Energy in the 21st Century.  Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute. 
  29. Schneider, Conrad G. (2000). Death, Disease, & Dirty Power: Mortality and Health Damage Due to Air Pollution from Power Plants.  Boston, MA: Clean Air Task Force. 
  30. Simms, Andrew. (2004). The Price of Power: Poverty, Climate Change, the Coming Energy Crisis, and the Renewable Revolution. London: New Economics Foundation.
  31. Spiewak, Scott A. and Larry Weiss. (1997). Cogeneration & Small Power Production Manual. Liburn, GA: The Fairmount Press.
  32. Strachan, Neil and Hadi Dowlatabadi. (2002). “Distributed Generation and Distribution Utilities.” Energy Policy 30: 649-661. 
  33. Starrs, Thomas J. (2001). “National Electricity Policy: Barriers to Competitive Generation.” Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality House Committee on Energy and Commerce. July 27.  Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
  34. Stavros, Richard. (1999). “Distributed Generation: Last Big Battle for State Regulators?” Public Utilities Fortnightly 137 (October 15): 34-43. 
  35. Steiner, Sheldon. (2004). “Pure Power: The ABC’s of DG.” Consulting-Specifying Engineer (March 1): 14-22.
  36. Thacker, Timothy. (2005). "Control of Power Conversion Systems for the Intentional Islanding of Distributed Generation Units." Electronic Theses, Virginia Tech.
  37. Sukkumnoed, Decharut. (2003). “Distributed Generation and Centralized Power Systems in Thailand: Conflicts and Solutions.” International Journal of Sustainable Energy 23(4): 199-206.
  38. Union of Concerned Scientists. (2004). “Clean Energy: The Renewable Electricity Standard,” May 20, Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/renewable_energy/page.cfm?pageID=4.
  39. United States Congressional Testimony. “Distributed Generation Technologies.” Hearing Before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (Washington, DC: Government Printing Services, June 22, 1999).    
  40. Whiteley, Mark (2002). “Cogen Sees the Future … But Does it Work?” European Power News 27(5): 10-18. 
  41. Willis, H. Lee and Walter G. Scott. (2000). Distributed Power Generation: Planning and Evaluation.  New York: Marcel Dekker. 
  42. Wilson, H. Bertram and Mark Schroeder. (2004). “The Value of Distributed Generation in a Deregulated Market.” Cogeneration and Distributed Generation Journal 19(1):59-66.
  43. Wiser, Wendell H. (2000). Energy Resources: Occurrence, Production, Conversion, Use. New York: Springer.

Chapter 3.

  1. Barsali S.; et al, "Operating and Planning issues of Distribution Grids containing Diffuse Generation", 16 th International Conf & Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Vol: 4, June 2001
  2. Joos G.; et al, "The Potential of Distributed Generation to provide Ancillary Services", IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vol: 3, July 2000
  3. Lawrence R.; Middlekauff S., "Distributed Generation: The New Guy of the Block", IEEE Industrial Applications Society Conference, Sept 2003
  4. Nigim K.A.; Hegazy Y.G., "Intentional Islanding of Distributed Generation for Reliability Enhancement", IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Vol: 4, July 2003
  5. Marei M.I; et al, "Flexible Distributed Generation: (FDG)", IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vol: 1, 2002
  6. Tabisz W.A., et al, "Present and Future of Distributed Power Systems", Applied Power Electronics Conference, Feb 1992
  7. Daly P.A.; Morrison, J., "Understanding the Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation on Power Delivery Systems", Rural Electric Power Conference, April 2001
  8. Puttgen H.B.; et al, "Distributed Generation: Semantic Hype of the Dawn of a New Era?", IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, Vol: 1, Issue: 1, Jan-Feb 2003
  9. IEEE Standard: IEEE 1547 - 2003
  10. Gannett R.A., "Control Strategies for High Power Four-Leg Voltage Source Inverters", MS Thesis, Virginia Tech, July 2001
  11. Kjaer S.B.; et al, "Power Inverter Topologies fro Photovoltaic Modules - A Review", IEEE Industrial Applications Society Conference, Vol: 2, Oct 2002
  12. Leslie L., "Design and Analysis of a Grid Connected Photovoltaic Generation Ssytem with Active Filtering Function", MS Thesis, Virginia Tech, March 2003
  13. Rosado S.; et al, "Power Electronics Building Blocks for Utility Power System Applications", International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, Vol: 1, 2004
  14. Blaabjerg F.; et al, "Power Electronics as Efficient Interface in Dispersed Power Generation System", IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol: 19, Issue: 5, Sept 2004
  15. Rahim N.A.; Mekhilef S., "Implementation of Three-Phase Grid Connected Inverter for Photovoltaic Solar Power Generation System", International Conference on Power System Technology, Vol: 1, Oct 2002
  16. Kojovic L.A.; Willoughby R.D., "Integration of Distributed Generation in a Typical USA Distribution System", International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Vol: 4, June 2001
  17. Sivakumar S.; et al, "Modeling, Analysis and Control of Bidirectional Power Flow in Grid Connected Inverter Systems", Proceedings of the Power Conversion Conference, Vol: 3, April 2002
  18. Tahri A.; et al, "A Fast Current Control Strategy of a PWM Inverter used for Static VAr Compensation", Industrial Electronics Society Conference, Vol: 1, Aug 1998
  19. IEEE Standard: ANSI/IEEE C84.1 - 1995
  20. IEEE Standard: IEEE 519 - 1992
  21. IEEE Standard: IEEE 929 - 2000
  22. Underwriter's Laboratory Standard: UL 1741
  23. Grady WM, "Standards and Solutions",             http://www.ece.utexas.edu/~grady/C7_Standards_and_Solutions_June05.pdf
  24. Basso T.S.; DeBlasio R., "IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues", IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol: 19, Issue: 5, Sept 2004
  25. Usta O.; et al, "Analysis of Out of Phase Reclosing Required for the Protection of Dispersed Storage and Generation Units", Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, Vol: 2, May 1996
  26. Ammous A.; et al, "An Advanced PWM-Switch Model Including Semiconductor Device Nonlinearities", IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol: 18, Issue: 5, Sept 2003
  27. Mao H.; et al, "Novel Reduced-Order Small-Signal Model of a Three-Phase PWM Rectifier and its Application in Control Design and System Analysis", IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol: 13, Issue: 3, May 1998
  28. Sun J., "Unified Average Switch Models for Stability Analysis of Large Distributed Power Systems", IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, Vol:1, Feb 2000
  29. Ye Z., "Modeling and Control of Parallel Three-Phase PWM Converters", PhD Dissertation, Virginia Tech, Sept 2000
  30. Thandi G.S; et al, "Modeling, Control and Stability Analysis of a PEBB based DC DPS", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol: 14, Issue: 2, April 1999
  31. Ericsen T., "Power Electronics Building Blocks and Potential Power Modulator Applications", International Power Modulator Symposium, June 1998
  32. Ericsen T; Tucker A., "Power Electronics Building Blocks - A Systematic Approach to Power Electronics", IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vol: 2, July 2000
  33. Kawabata T.; Higashino S., "Parallel Operation of Voltage Source Inverters", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, Vol: 24, Issue: 2, March 1988
  34. Liang J.; et al, "Hybrid Control of Multiple Inverters in an Island-Mode Distributed System", IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference, Vol: 1, June 2003
  35. Macken K.J.P; et al, "Distributed Control of Renewable Generation Units with Integrated Active Filter", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 19, Issue: 5, Sept 2004
  36. Xing Y.; et al, "A Decoupling Control Method for Inverters in Parallel Operation", International Conference on Power System Technology, Vol: 2, Oct 2002
  37. Tuladhar A.; et al, "Control of Parallel Inverters in Distributed AC Power Systems with Consideration of Line Impedance Effect", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, Vol: 36, Issue: 1, Jan 2000
  38. Neacsu D.O.; et al, "Limiting Interconverter Zero-Sequence Currents within 3-Phase Multi-Converter Power Systems - Review and Ultimate Solution", IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Conference, Vol: 2, Nov 2001
  39. Depenbrock M.; et al, "A Theoretical Investigation of Original and Modified Instantaneous Power Theory Applied to Four-Wire Systems", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, Vol: 39, Issue: 4, July 2003
  40. Kim H.; et al, "Instantaneous Power Compensation in Three-Phase Systems by using p-q-r Theory", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 17, Issue: 5, Sept 2002
  41. Chung S.-K., "Phase-Locked Loop for Grid-Connected Three-Phase Power Conversion Systems", IEE Proceedings on Electric Power Applications, Vol: 147, Issue: 3, May 2000
  42. Ye Z.; et al, "Evaluation of Anti-Islanding Schemes based on Nondetection Zone Concept", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 19, Issue: 5, Sept 2004
  43. Jang S.-I.; Kim K.-H., "An Islanding Detection Method for Distributed Generations using Voltage Unbalance and Total Harmonic Distortion of Current", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol: 19, Issue: 2, April 2004
  44. Jang S.-I.; Kim K.-H., "Development of a Logical Rule-Based Islanding Detection Method for Distributed Resources", IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, Vol: 2, Jan 2002
  45. Jeraputra C.; Enjeti P.N., "Development of a Robust Anti-Islanding Algorithm for Utility Interconnection of Distributed Fuel Cell Powered Generation", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 19. Issue 5, Sept 2004
  46. Jeraputra C.; et al, "An Improved Anti-Islanding Algorithm for Utility Interconnection of Multiple Distributed Fuel Cell Powered Generations", IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, Vol: 1, March 2005
  47. Kim J.E.; Hwang J.S., "Islanding Detection Method of Distributed Generation Units Connected to Power Distribution System", International Conference on Power System Technology, Vol: 2, Dec 2000
  48. Ye Z.; et al, "A New Family of Active Antiislanding Schemes based on DQ Implementation for Grid-Connected Inverters", IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Vol: 1, June 2004
  49. Ghizoni D., "", MS Thesis, Virginia Tech, Sept 2005
  50. Francis G., "A Synchronous Distributed Digital Control Architecture for High Power Converters", MS Thesis, Virginia Tech, March 2004
Chapter 5.
  1. Willis, H., Distributed Power Generation: Planning and Evaluation New York, New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000.
  2. Fundamental of Compression Engines. http://www.siu.edu/~autoclub/frange.html
  3. Cummins Diesel Innovations. http://www.cummins.com/na/pages/en/products/dodgeram/cummins24vturbodiesel.cfm
  4. Ford's ULEV Vehicle. http://www.dieselnet.com/news/0110ford.html
  5. Caterpillar Inc Website. http://www.caterpillar.com/products/shared/electric_power/whats_new/whats_new.html
  6. Global Technoscan Website. http://www.globaltechnoscan.com/3rdJan-9thJan01/diesel_fuels.htm
  7. Solar Turbines Website http://esolar.cat.com/solar/cda/articleDisplay/1,1348,7_1001_10231_10017232____7_1,00.html
  8. Capstone Microturbines Website http://www.microturbine.com/technology/techDownload.asp
  9. [Boyce, M., Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 1982.
  10. Dugan, R.C, et al., Electrical Power Systems Quality: McGraw Hill Companies, 2001.
  11. Lai, Jason, "ECE 5334 Class Notes". Blacksburg Virginia: Virginia Tech, 2003.
  12. Boyce, M., Handbook for Cogeneration and Combined Cycle Power Plants. New York: ASME Press, 2002.
  13. Sawyer, J., Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook, New York: Business Journals, 1993.
  14. Kiameh, P., Power Generation Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
  15. Appleby, Fuel Cells: Trends in Research and Application Berlin, Germany: Hemisphere Publishing, 1987.
  16. DOE 2003 Fuel Cell Report to Congress - Government Publication.
  17. Avadikyan, et al., The Economic Dynamics of Fuel Cell Technologies. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag 2003.
  18. Williams, K., An Introduction to Fuel Cells New York, NY: Elsevier Publishing, 1966.
  19. Noyes, R., Fuel Cells for Public Utility and Industrial Power. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation,1977.
  20. DOE/NETL Brochure. "Distributed Generation", June 2003.
  21. Siemens Fuel Cell Website. http://www.pg.siemens.com/img/pool/westervoort.gif
  22. DOE Hydrogen Information Sheet, Government Publication March 2003.
  23. http://www.ne.doe.gov/infosheets/hydrogenfactmarch2003.pdf
  24. FETC Project Fact Sheet, PS026.1098M "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project" April 7, 1999.
  25. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. http://fuelcells.si.edu/so/sofcmain.htm.
  26. NETL. "Scale up study of 5kW SECA modules to a 250kW system", Government Publication.
  27. DOE Website. http://www.energy.gov
  28. Vielstich, et al., Handbook of Fuel Cells. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publications, 2003.
  29. EIA 2003 "Annual Energy Outlook" http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/
  30. Kyoto Protocol as presented on the DOE website, September 2002. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/kyoto/kyotorpt.html